Contact Lenses Grading Scales. Etiology. Normal grade. Comment. Bulbar redness. Dilation of bulbar vessels, e.g. due to mechanical stimulation. CCLRU O GRADING SCALES. CCLRU. SCCLRU. BULBAR REDNESS. SLIGHT. 2. SLIGHT. 3. MODERATE. SEVERE. OCCLRU. LIMBAL. Eye care professionals: See the Efron Grading Scales for a standard clinical reference for describing the severity of 16 contact lens complications.

Author: Nazuru Mitaur
Country: Myanmar
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Music
Published (Last): 7 November 2010
Pages: 481
PDF File Size: 6.77 Mb
ePub File Size: 12.73 Mb
ISBN: 722-1-30206-521-7
Downloads: 27523
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Tegar

Palpebral hyperaemia and staining grading is complicated cvlru the variable presentations possible. This duplicitous practice represents a conservative approach to record keeping and suggests that many practitioners consider the recording of clinical grades and clinical photography to be complementary approaches.

To examine the incremental nature of the Annunziato, 29 Efron Millennium Edition9 and Vistakon-Synoptik 4 grading scales, the printed images of bulbar hyperaemia, palpebral hyperaemia also referred to as papillary conjunctivitisand corneal staining extent were scanned at dpi stored in tagged image format TIFF and analysed.

In conclusion, the printed grading scales analysed were quadratic in nature, having a higher sensitivity for grading grqding of low severity. Quantitative slit scle observations in contact lens practice. Two important recent studies help us to reach a more standardised approach.

Qualified Dispensing Optician Orpington Table 1 summarises the benefits. Clinical grading and the effects of scaling. The BHVI photographic scales have been criticised for the lack of perfect homogeneity between images representing the same condition, either in terms of different illumination conditions or variability of size of the area under display. Support Center Support Center.

Key factors in the subjective and objective assessment of conjunctival erythema. Highlighting the papillae with fluorescein would appear a more appropriate method for determining palpebral roughness as previously described, 25, 26 causing an increase in edges detected and a decrease in the fluorescein coverage, despite an apparent decrease in severity with the highest CCLRU scale grade.


Accepted Mar Int J Microcirculation Clin Exp ; 6: Clinical grading scales also offer practitioners the most effective way of monitoring the health of an eye wearing a contact lens. A general increase in edges detected with increasing scale grade was seen in the all the scales analysed, although the change in green colouration was more variable.

A report can then be exported for practice records without collecting patient personal data. Paper records may also have specific sections for recording clinical information, as well as previously drawn ocular sketches for annotation. By grading to decimal places that are representative of points in between two successive integer points on the scale, 1. Arch Ophthalmol ; Analysis of microvascular network in bulbar conjunctiva by image processing.

Compared with reported values of clinician subjective grading variability using these grading scales, 7, 9, 12, 15 image analysis techniques are approximately 6—35 times more repeatable, with a sensitivity of 2. However, there is a limit to such interpolation; 0. As most eyes only have minimal hyperaemia and corneal staining 14, 23, 24 this approach to grading scale design could be considered appropriate, but could lead to errors if clinicians interpolate between scale grade images to improve sensitivity.

CCLRU grading scale | Optometric | Pinterest | Eyes, Lens and Education

The subjective judgement that a practitioner makes at the slit lamp is however a complex one to mimic objectively. They gracing a given ocular feature to be gauged relative to predetermined images chosen to represent different degrees of the condition of graading on an ordinal scale.

Sign up for our free e-newsletters Get all the latest jobs and product news emailed to you every week Click here to register.

To use previously validated image analysis techniques to determine the incremental nature of printed subjective anterior eye grading scales.

Image analysis techniques are 6—35 times more repeatable ccru subjective grading, with a sensitivity of 1. Edge detection filled symbols and relative green colouration closed symbols with grading scale images of corneal staining.


Incremental nature of anterior eye grading scales determined by objective image analysis

Therefore this study aimed to determine, by objective image analysis, whether commonly used clinical pictorial and photographic subjective grading scales are incremental in nature. Grsding J ; Automatic quantitative measurement of ocular hyperaemia. Characteristics of corneal staining in hydrogel contact lens wearers. Validation of grading scales for contact lens complications. Grading scales for contact lens complications.

Incremental nature of anterior eye grading scales determined by objective image analysis

Validated image analysis techniques of edge detection and colour extraction showed that bulbar hyperaemia, palpebral hyperaemia roughness, and corneal staining grade images were quadratic rather than linear in nature.

Ophthal Physiol Opt ; cclfu Quantification of conjunctival vascular reaction by digital imaging. There has been much discussion and debate in the literature concerning the merits and relative difficulties of constructing photographic versus pictorial grading scales, with the suggestion that painted grading scales, although not as realistic as photographs, allow more control in depicting incremental increases in severity that are clear and unambiguous to the clinician.

Doc Ophthalmol ; Grading features such as palpebral hyperaemia, palpebral roughness, and corneal staining is complex and there is a compromise between the simplicity of a single scale and the ability to scake describe and monitor changes in the feature. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; Computerised grading — note the slider at the bottom of the screen allowing easy adjustments of severity. These alternative approaches to record keeping can all be considered as representing good clinical practice.

An area of approximately 90 pixels about 6.