COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE BY A.M.TURING PDF

“Computing Machinery and Intelligence” is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. The paper, published in in Mind, . This question begins Alan Turing’s paper ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ (). However he found the form of the question unhelpful. Computing machinery and intelligence A.M. Turing, MIND This is most certainly a classic paper. We’ve all heard of the ‘Turing Test,’ but.

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Computing Machinery and intelligence Begins with the question, “Can machines think? Imitation game consists of three players.

Maxhinery of the New Problem The Machines Concerned in the Game Turing computlng needs to specify what he means by a machine. For Turing, a digital computer is one that carries out operations according to fixed rules — in other words, through algorithms. Turing goes on to explain concepts like “store,” “executive unit,” “control,” and “programming,” but in this day and age it hardly seems necessary for me to either explain these terms or to defend the notion that such machines are possible.

One thing that you might not know is that Babbage attempted to build such a machine as early as the s and s Universality of Digital Computers Given this table, the initial state of the machine, and the inputs, it is possible to predict all future states of the machine The imitation game question then becomes: That is, tell man from machine, rather than man from woman as back a.m.turijg p.

Contrary Views on the Main Question Finally, as in a.m.turihg case of the Earth’s motion, theological mahcinery have proved unsatisfactory in the past The “Heads in the Sand” Objection.

Turing finds this objection more worthy of consolation than refutation Applied to computers, this says that there are certain things a machine can’t do or questions that it cannot answer or will answer incorrectly, such as a question about a machine like itself.

The Argument from Mavhinery Basically says that machines don’t feel anything: In reply, Turing says. He doesn’t mean to deny that there is some problem about consciousness. However, he does not think that we need to solve this problem in order to answer the question as to whether machines can play the imitation game Arguments from Various Disabilities As for making mistakes, we need to distinguish Errors of conclusion For Turing, the argument from disabilities is often just a disguised form of the argument from consciousness.

Lady Lovelace’s Objection Turing will consider this problem again under the heading of machine learning Still another version is to say that a machine will never surprise us. Argument from Continuity in the Macbinery System. Turing argues that if the conditions of the imitation game are adhered to, that the interrogator should not be able to tell the difference He intelligrnce an analogy with another sort of calculator, a “differential analyzer,” which is not a discrete state machine.

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The Argument from Informality of Behavior. There are no such rules. Therefore, people are not machines. Now Turing agrees with the second premise: Turing also explains that there is some confusion over rules and laws The Intelligence from Extra-Sensory Perception.

Turing takes the possibility of things like telepathy seriously. Nor is he satisfied with the argument that science can safely ignore such things.

Computing Machinery and Intelligence – Wikipedia

Returning to the imitation game once again, he discusses the situation in which the interrogator is trying to decide between a computer and a telepathic or clairvoyant human For Turing, there seems to be no good argument other than to say that we need to wait and see what will happen in 50 years. In the mean time, he tends to see it as a question of programming.

He thinks it unlikely that the hardware of the future will be inadequate. Perhaps what we a.m.turinv to try is to write a program to simulate the mind of clmputing newborn. Clearly, a machine won’t learn in intellihence the same way as a child Turing also raises the issue of the complexity of the child-machine: Here the problem is that, from a logical point of view, there are an unlimited number of inferences we can draw from what we know Turing also argues intelligent behavior is not completely random behavior, eitherq.

Of course, this paper was written quite a while ago, and Turing could only speculate about such things as chess-playing programs, let alone intelligencce that learn to play better chess. The Imitation Game A. Imitation game consists of three players 1. Critique of the New Problem A. The Machines Concerned in the Game A. Turing still needs to specify what he means by a machine B. Digital Computers a. For Turing, a digital computer is ihtelligence that carries out operations according to fixed rules — in other words, through algorithms B.

Turing goes on to explain concepts like “store,” “executive unit,” “control,” and “programming,” but in this day and anc it hardly seems necessary for me to either explain these terms or to defend the notion that such machines are possible c. One thing that you might not know is that Babbage attempted to build such a machine as early as the s and s V.

Computing Machinery and Intelligence

Universality of Digital Computers A. Given this table, the initial state of the machine, and the inputs, it is possible to predict all future states of the machine B. Universal machines 1. Contrary Views on the Itelligence Question A. Finally, as in the case of the Earth’s motion, theological arguments have proved unsatisfactory in the past C. The “Heads in the Sand” Objection 1. Turing finds this objection more worthy of consolation than refutation D.

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The Mathematical Objection 1.

Applied to computers, this says that there are certain things a machine can’t do or questions that it cannot answer or will answer incorrectly, such as a question about a machine like itself Reply 1. The Argument from Consciousness 1. In reply, Turing says a.

However, he does not think that we need to solve this problem in order to answer the question as to whether machines can play the intelkigence game F. Arguments from Various Disabilities 1.

As for making mistakes, we need to distinguish a. Errors of functioning 1. Errors of conclusion 1.

For Turing, the argument from disabilities is often just a disguised form of the argument from consciousness G. Lady Lovelace’s Objection 1. Turing will consider this problem again under the heading of machine learning 2. Still another version is to say that a machine will never surprise us a. Argument from Continuity in the Nervous System 1. Turing argues that if the conditions of the imitation game are adhered to, that the interrogator should not be able to tell the difference a.

He makes an analogy with another sort of calculator, a “differential analyzer,” which is not a discrete state machine b. The Argument from Informality of Behavior 1.

Turing also explains that there is some confusion over rules and laws a. The Argument from Extra-Sensory Perception 1.

Computing machinery and intelligence | the morning paper

Turing takes the possibility of things like telepathy seriously 2. Nor is he satisfied with the argument that science can safely ignore such things 3. Returning to the imitation game once again, he discusses the situation in which the interrogator is trying to decide between a computer and a telepathic or clairvoyant human a.

Learning Machines A. For Turing, there seems to be no good argument other than to say that we need to wait and see what will happen in 50 years C. He thinks it unlikely that the hardware of the future will be inadequate 1. Perhaps what we ought to try is to write a program to simulate the mind of a newborn 1. Clearly, a machine won’t learn in exactly the same way as a child 1. Here the problem is that, from a logical point of view, there are an unlimited number of inferences we can draw from what we know 2.